In Detail

DetaHeel Counteriled Construction of a Shoe


  • Heel Counter- A stiff piece of material at the heel of a shoe positioned between the lining and upper that helps maintain the shape of the shoe. The counter helps strengthen the rear of the shoe
  • Heel: The heel is the part of the sole that raises the rear of the shoe in relation to the front. The heal seat is the top of the heal that touches the upper, this is typically shaped to match the form of the upper. The part of the the heel that comes in contact with the ground is known as the the top piece.Heel breast- The forward facing part of the heel, under the arch of the sole
  • Shank- the part of the shoe that runs between the heel and the sole, and sits under the arch of the foot. The shank supports the foot and helps give a shoe its structure. Can be made from steel, plastic, fibreglass, nylon, or a combination
  • Outsole- the bottom part of the shoe, traditionally leather in a brogue; solid carbon, or blown rubber used in sport shoe manufacture- considerations need to be made for shock absorption and traction
  • Midsole- density and firmness of the midsole foam helps with shock absorption and control. Cork used traditionally in brogues, dual density midsoles used in sport shoes
  • Insole- the inside part of the shoe that runs underneath the bottom of the foot
  • Throat- is the top opening that you slide your foot into
  • Toebox- the part of the shoe that covers ad protects your toes
  • Toe cap: Shoes may have a toe cap in the front upper of the shoe. Toe caps can take various forms, but the distinct types are: complete replacements for the front upper of the shoe; stitched over toecaps that add an extra layer to the upper; solid toe caps for protection, such as steel toe caps. Stitch over toe caps may be decorative in nature. Toe caps help add stength to the upper front of the shoe, an area that receives a lot of stress and wear from use.
  • Upper- the upper itself can be broke down into many key points (the vamp, the heel, the eyelets etc), as a whole it is everything which actually covers the foot when wearing the shoe
  • Vamp- part of the shoe that can cover anywhere on the top part of the foot
  • Last- a 3D model is what gives a shoe its shape (and the individual their desired fit). They are used for both design and construction. There are six measurements involved in designing a last: ball girth, waist girth, instep girth, long heel girth, short heel girth, stick length (overall heel-toe measurement).
  • Welt- primary function is for attaching the upper to the outsole
  • Waist: The arch and in-step of the foot.
  • Blake or McKay construction- a single row of stitching attaches the insole to the upper and the outsole.
  • Goodyear Welted shoe- after both the upper and insole are secured to the last, the welt (a third strip of leather) is sewn ot the upper and the rib of the insole. More superior for long term wear and comfort